DNA testing

Beagle having its mouth swabbed

What do DNA tests check for?

DNA tests allow you to better understand your dog’s genetics. These types of tests can tell you if your dog is likely to be affected by specific conditions or whether they may pass on the genes associated with these conditions if they're bred from.

Why test your dog?

If you're thinking of breeding from your dog, then knowing more about their genetics can help you reduce the risk of producing puppies affected by inherited conditions. Understanding whether your dog carries a particular disease-causing gene can help you know what to look for in a similarly DNA-tested mate.

Which DNA tests are recommended for my breed?

Find out which health tests and screening schemes are relevant to your breed on our Breeds A to Z. Alternatively speak to your local breed club or dog breeder.

How to DNA test your dog

Most DNA tests require you to take a simple mouth swab from inside your dog's mouth (usually from their cheek). Some DNA tests may require a qualified person to take a blood sample from your dog, but these are rare.

Find a dog's DNA test results

Our Health Test Results Finder can help you find the results for any dog on our records that has been screened for the DNA tests and screening schemes that we record. 

Lists of dogs with clear, carrier or affected status can be found under the health section of each breeds entry on our Breeds A to Z.

Collective results for activity dogs can be found below.

Activity dog results

Acral Mutilation Syndrome (AMS)

Collie Eye Anomaly/Choroidal Hypoplasia (CEA/CH)

Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CL)

Exercise Induced Collapse (EIC)

Familial Nephropathy (FN)

Fucosidosis (Fuco)

Hereditary Cataract (HC-HSF4) 

Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis (HNPK)

Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS)

Multi-drug resistance (MDR1)

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (prcd-PRA)

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA cord1)

Sensory Neuropathy (SN)

Neutrophil Syndrome (TNS)

Breeding advice

Before looking at the breeding advice below, it is important to know which type of DNA test you have used, or are considering using. Most of the DNA tests we record are for autosomal recessive conditions, but we do also record a small number of other types of DNA test.
Types of test
If you would like to check what sort of test is used for a breed-specific DNA test, please refer to our questions and answers below.

Autosomal-recessive conditions (most DNA tests)

An autosomal-recessive condition means that a dog must inherit two copies of an abnormal gene (one from its mother and one from its father) before its health is affected. 
How are results recorded?
Tested dogs will be recorded on The Kennel Club's systems as “clear”, “carrier” or “affected”.
  • Clear - these dogs do not have any copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs are highly unlikely to develop this condition and will pass on a normal copy of the gene to their puppies.
  • Carrier - these dogs have one copy of the normal gene and one copy of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs are highly unlikely to develop this condition and may pass either one copy of the normal gene, or one copy of the abnormal gene on to their puppies.
  • Affected - these dogs dogs have two copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs will likely be affected by the disorder and will pass on one copy of the abnormal gene on to any future puppies.
Breeding advice for autosomal recessive conditions

The table below provides guidance on breeding from your DNA-tested dog.

If your dog is clear

Clear dogs can be mated to any dogs without producing affected puppies. If they are bred with a carrier or affected dog they may produce carrier puppies.

If your dog is a carrier

Carrier dogs can be used for mating, so long as they are only mated to clear dogs. Mating a carrier to a carrier, or a carrier to an affected dog is putting the health of future puppies at risk.

If your dog is affected

Affected dogs can only be mated to clear dogs without risking producing affected puppies, however all resulting puppies will be carriers. Mating an affected dog to a carrier, or another affected dog is putting the health of future puppies at risk.

Potentially producing affected puppies
Producing affected puppies that will develop the condition you tested for will have a serious impact on their health and welfare. A mating which may produce affected puppies should never knowingly be carried out. If this mating accidentally occurs, it is important to test all of the puppies before they are bred from or are passed on to new homes. Veterinary advice should be sought as to the clinical management of any affected puppies.
Why breed from carriers and affected dogs?

Breeding only from clear dogs can have a significant impact on genetic diversity within a breed, increasing inbreeding and therefore the likelihood of new inherited diseases emerging.

  • With simple autosomal-recessive disorders, a carrier will not be affected by the condition you have tested for, but they could pass on a copy of the faulty gene if they themselves are bred from
  • Only when a dog inherits two copies of a faulty gene (one from its mother and one from its father) will it be affected
  • When used responsibly, carriers are an important part of any breeding plan and should not be overlooked
  • By breeding from carriers, you can keep good, healthy dogs in the breeding population, helping to maintain genetic diversity
  • Ultimately, however, over the course of a few generations it would be beneficial to aim to produce only clear puppies, thereby reducing the frequency of the disease-causing variant of the gene in the breed

Similarly an affected dog could still be used in a breeding programme, but this will very much be dependent on the condition and whether the dog's welfare would be affected by the mating/whelping process. They should only be mated to clear dogs, to ensure no affected puppies are produced.

Are clear dogs 100% clear?
Clear dogs are only known to be clear for the condition that they have been tested for, and may carry other unknown mutations which can be passed on to their offspring - it is almost certain that all individuals carry some versions of genes that if inherited in duplicate would result in disease. If a particular dog has many offspring that go on to breed themselves, these unknown mutations may then increase in frequency in the breed and a new inherited disease could emerge. In other words, no dog is completely risk free, but there are ways a breeder can reduce the risk of known and unknown inherited disease. 
Additional cautions about using carriers or affected dogs

Sticking to these rules will mean that you can still use these dogs for breeding, while maintaining genetic diversity within the breed.

  • Never overuse a carrier or affected dog for mating. If a dog has one or two copies of a known faulty gene it should never be overused for breeding. Overusing these dog’s risks increasing the frequency of the faulty gene within the population, making it more difficult for future generations to breed without increasing the risk of producing affected dogs
  • Do your research. If all breeders decided to use carriers or affected dogs for mating, then there is a possibility that as the frequency of mutant genes increases, then the proportion of 'clear' dogs would decline. You can use carriers and affected, but you always want to make sure you have a big enough supply of clear dogs. You may wish to talk to health representatives at your local breed club who will have access to summary information on the results of dogs that have been DNA tested and can advise you appropriately on the current situation in your breed
  • Any possible carrier puppies that go on to be bred from should be DNA tested prior to mating. If you do decide to produce puppies that are potentially carriers, but are concerned that they may be used by their new owners for breeding, then you may wish to consider placing an endorsement on the puppy, or include a statement in your puppy contract that any puppies used for breeding must be tested prior to mating and if the puppy is a carrier, it must only be mated to a clear dog

Autosomal-dominant conditions

An autosomal-dominant condition means that a dog need only inherit one copy of an abnormal gene (either from its mother or its father) before its health is affected.
How are results recorded?
Tested dogs will be recorded on The Kennel Club's systems as “clear”, “heterozygous affected” or “homozygous affected”.
  • Clear - these dogs do not have any copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs are highly unlikely to develop this condition and will pass on a normal copy of the gene to their puppies
  • Heterozygous affected - these dogs have one copy of the normal gene and one copy of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs will likely be affected by the disorder and could pass on a copy of the abnormal gene on to any future puppies
  • Homozygous affected - these dogs dogs have two copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs will likely be affected by the disorder and will pass on one copy of the abnormal gene on to any future puppies
Breeding advice for autosomal-dominant conditions

The information below provides guidance on breeding from your DNA tested dog.

If your dog is clear

Clear dogs can be mated to any other clear dog without producing affected puppies. If they are mated to an heterozygous or homozygous affected dog they can produce puppies that are affected too.

Mating to a clear dog
All puppies will be clear.

Mating to a heterozygous affected dog
Each puppy has a 50% chance of being clear and a 50% of being heterozygous affected.

Mating to a homozygous affected dog
All puppies will be heterozygous affected 

If your dog is heterozygous affected

Breeding from this dog could produce affected puppies and is potentially putting their health at risk.

Mating to a clear dog
Each puppy has a 50% chance of being clear and a 50% of being heterozygous affected.

Mating to a heterozygous dog
Each puppy has a 25% of being clear a 25% chance of being homozygous affected and a 50% chance of being heterozygous affected.

Mating to a homozygous affected dog
Each puppy has a 50% chance of being homozygous affected and a 50% chance of being heterozygous affected.

If your dog is homozygous affected

Breeding from this dog has a high risk of producing affected puppies and is potentially putting their health at risk.

Mating to a clear dog
All puppies will be heterozygous affected. 

Mating to a heterozygous dog
Each puppy has a 50% chance of being homozygous affected and a 50% chance of being heterozygous affected.

Mating to a homozygous affected dog
All puppies will be homozygous affected. 

Potentially producing affected puppies
Potentially producing affected puppies that may develop the condition you have tested will have a serious impact on canine health and welfare. Matings which could produce affected puppies should never knowingly be carried out. If this mating accidentally occurs, it is important to test all of the puppies before they are bred from or are passed on to new homes. Veterinary advice should be sought as to the clinical management of any affected puppies.

Linkage tests (DNA based)

What is a linkage test?

Most DNA tests look for a particular gene that is known to cause a particular condition. Sometimes scientists are unable to find the exact gene, but are able to know approximately where in a dog’s genome it is located. Genes and other genetic markers are often inherited together because they are near one another on the same chromosome. While it may be difficult to identify the exact gene causing a condition, scientists are sometimes able to find sections of DNA that are usually linked to, and inherited alongside, the unknown gene. By identifying these linked genetic markers, breeders are able to know, with considerable confidence, the genetic status of their dogs.

These DNA tests may not be quite as accurate as tests where the gene is known – they rely on the link between the marker and the disease causing gene being maintained - but can still be highly accurate and laboratories will often estimate how accurate their test is.

How are results recorded?
Health conditions which have a linkage test will still be either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Currently we only accept results for autosomal recessive conditions and so the information below relates to these only.

Breeders should be aware that linkage tests are not always 100% accurate and may not be definitive.

Tested dogs will be recorded on The Kennel Club's systems as “clear”, “carrier” or “affected”.

  • Clear - these dogs do not have any copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs are highly unlikely to develop this condition and will pass on a normal copy of the gene to their puppies
  • Carrier - these dogs have one copy of the normal gene and one copy of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs are highly unlikely to develop this condition and may pass either one copy of the normal gene, or one copy of the abnormal gene on to their puppies
  • Affected - these dogs dogs have two copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs will likely be affected by the disorder and will pass on one copy of the abnormal gene on to any future puppies
Why do laboratories create linkage tests rather than regular DNA tests?

Laboratories may offer linkage tests for three main reasons:

  1. Sometimes scientists are unable to find the exact gene that causes a disease, but they are able to find sections of DNA that are somehow linked to, and inherited alongside it
  2. It may be technically difficult to find the mutation and it may be easier and cheaper to look at and determine linked markers instead
  3. The test for a particular genetic mutation is patented by a specific laboratory and may not allow others to offer this test, or may ask that they pay to offer it. In these circumstances some laboratories may create a linkage test so that they can offer the test to their clients
Breeding advice

The table below provides guidance on breeding from your DNA tested dog.

If your dog is clear

Clear dogs can be mated to any dogs without knowingly increasing the risk of producing affected puppies. They can produce puppies that are carriers if they are bred with a carrier or affected dog.

If your dog is a carrier

Carrier dogs can be used for mating, so long as they are only mated to clear dogs. Mating a carrier to a carrier, or a carrier to an affected dog is putting the health of future puppies at risk.

If your dog is affected

Affected dogs can only be mated to clear dogs without risking producing affected puppies, however all resulting puppies will be carriers. Mating an affected dog to a carrier, or another affected dog is putting the health of future puppies at risk.

Potentially producing affected puppies
Producing affected puppies that will develop the condition you tested for will have a serious impact on their health and welfare. A mating which may produce affected puppies should never knowingly be carried out. If this mating accidentally occurs, it is important to test all of the puppies before they are bred from or are passed on to new homes. Veterinary advice should be sought as to the clinical management of any affected puppies.
Why breed from carriers and affected dogs?

Breeding only from clear dogs can have a significant impact on genetic diversity within a breed, increasing inbreeding and therefore the likelihood of new inherited diseases emerging.

  • With simple autosomal-recessive disorders, a carrier will not be affected by the condition you have tested for, but they could pass on a copy of the faulty gene if they themselves are bred from
  • Only when a dog inherits two copies of a faulty gene (one from its mother and one from its father) will it be affected
  • When used responsibly, carriers are an important part of any breeding plan and should not be overlooked
  • By breeding from carriers, you can keep good, healthy dogs in the breeding population, helping to maintain genetic diversity
  • Ultimately, however, over the course of a few generations it would be beneficial to aim to produce only clear puppies, thereby reducing the frequency of the disease-causing variant of the gene in the breed

Similarly an affected dog could still be used in a breeding programme, but this will very much be dependent on the condition and whether the dog's welfare would be affected by the mating/whelping process. They should only be mated to clear dogs, to ensure no affected puppies are produced.

Are clear dogs 100% clear?
Clear dogs are only known to be clear for the condition that they have been tested for, and may carry other unknown mutations which can be passed on to their offspring - it is almost certain that all individuals carry some versions of genes that if inherited in duplicate would result in disease. If a particular dog has many offspring that go on to breed themselves, these unknown mutations may then increase in frequency in the breed and a new inherited disease could emerge. In other words, no dog is completely risk free, but there are ways a breeder can reduce the risk of known and unknown inherited disease. 
Additional cautions about using carriers or affected dogs

Sticking to these rules will mean that you can still use these dogs for breeding, while maintaining genetic diversity within the breed.

  • Never overuse a carrier or affected dog for mating. If a dog has one or two copies of a known faulty gene it should never be overused for breeding. Overusing these dog’s risks increasing the frequency of the faulty gene within the population, making it more difficult for future generations to breed without increasing the risk of producing affected dogs
  • Do your research. If all breeders decided to use carriers or affected dogs for mating, then there is a possibility that as the frequency of mutant genes increases, then the proportion of 'clear' dogs would decline. You can use carriers and affected, but you always want to make sure you have a big enough supply of clear dogs. You may wish to talk to health representatives at your local breed club who will have access to summary information on the results of dogs that have been DNA tested and can advise you appropriately on the current situation in your breed
  • Any possible carrier puppies that go on to be bred from should be DNA tested prior to mating. If you do decide to produce puppies that are potentially carriers, but are concerned that they may be used by their new owners for breeding, then you may wish to consider placing an endorsement on the puppy, or include a statement in your puppy contract that any puppies used for breeding must be tested prior to mating and if the puppy is a carrier, it must only be mated to a clear dog

Risk-based DNA tests (incomplete penetrance)

What is a risk-based DNA test?

Most DNA tests look for a particular gene that is known to cause a particular condition. For some conditions, certain environmental factors, or other genetic influences can also contribute to whether a dog becomes affected. Having copies of the disease causing genes will therefore not be a guarantee that the condition will occur. Similarly an absence of these genes will not be a guarantee that the condition will not occur.

These risk-based tests are sometimes not quite as accurate as other DNA tests, but can still be highly accurate and laboratories will often estimate how accurate their test is.

How are results recorded?
Health conditions which have a risk based DNA test will still be either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Currently we only accept results for autosomal recessive conditions and so the information below relates to these only.

Tested dogs will be recorded on The Kennel Club's systems as at “minimal risk (0)”, “minimal risk (1)” or “increased risk (2)”. The numbers assigned to each status indicate the number of copies of the DM gene variant a dog has.
  • Minimal risk (0) - these dogs do not have any copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs are at significantly reduced risk of developing the condition
  • Minimal risk (1) - these dogs have one normal copy and one abnormal copy of the gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs are at reduced risk of developing the condition and may pass either one copy of the normal gene, or one copy of the abnormal gene on to future puppies
  • Increased risk (2) - these dogs have two copies of the abnormal gene associated with the condition that has been tested for. These dogs have an increased risk of developing the condition
Breeding advice - if your dog is minimal risk (0)

These dogs can be mated to any dogs without increasing the risk of the puppies developing the condition tested for. Your chosen mate should always be tested and your decision should be informed by their results.

Minimal risk (0) x Minimal risk (0)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 100% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 0% chance of having a minimal risk (1) status 
  • 0% chance of having an increased risk (2) status

This means that each puppy born will have the lowest chance of developing the condition and will not carry a copy of the gene variant tested for.

Minimal risk (0) x Minimal risk (1)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 50% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 50% chance of having a minimal risk (1) status
  • 0% chance of having an increased risk (2) status 

This means that each puppy born will have the lowest chance of developing the condition, but will have a 50% chance of carrying a copy of the gene variant tested for. Dogs that are born minimal risk (1) could pass this gene variant on to any possible future puppies.

Minimal risk (0) x increased risk (2)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 0% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 100% chance of having a minimal risk (1) status
  • 0% chance of having an increased risk (2) status 

This means that each puppy born will have the lowest chance of developing the condition, but will carry a copy of the gene variant tested for and could pass this gene variant on to any possible future puppies they have.

Breeding advice - If your dog is minimal risk (1)

These dogs can be used for mating, but your chosen mate should always be tested and your decision should be informed by their results.

Minimal risk (1) x minimal risk (0)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 50% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 50% chance of having a minimal risk (1) status 
  • 0% chance of having an increased risk (2) status

This means that each puppy born will have the lowest chance of developing the condition and a 50% chance of carrying a copy of the gene variant tested for. Dogs that are born minimal risk (1) could pass this gene variant on to any possible future puppies.

Minimal risk (1) x minimal risk (1)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 25% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 50% chance of having a minimal risk (1)
  • 25% chance of having an increased risk (2) status 

This means that each puppy born has a 25% chance of possibly being affected by the condition.

Each puppy will also have a 75% chance of carrying at least one copy of the gene variant tested for. Dogs that are minimal risk (1) could pass this gene variant on to any possible future puppies, while dogs that are increased risk (2) will pass this gene variant on to any future puppies.

Minimal risk (1) x increased risk (2)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 0% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 50% chance of having a minimal risk (1)
  • 50% chance of having an increased risk (2) status 

This mans that each puppy born has a 50% chance of possibly being affected by the condition.

Each puppy will also carry at least one copy of the gene variant. Dogs that are born minimal risk (1) could pass this gene variant on to any possible future puppies, while dogs that are born increased risk (2) will pass this gene variant on to any future puppies.

Breeding advice - If your dog is increased risk (2)

These dogs can be used for mating, but your chosen mate should always be tested and your decision should be informed by their results.

Increased risk (2) x minimal risk (0)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 0% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 100% chance of having a minimal risk (1) status 
  • 0% chance of having an increased risk (2) status

This means that each puppy born will have the lowest chance of developing the condition, but will carry a copy of the gene variant and could pass this gene variant on to any possible future puppies they have.

Increased risk (2) x minimal risk (1)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 0% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 50% chance of having a minimal risk (1)
  • 50% chance of having an increased risk (2) status 

This means that each puppy born has a 50% chance of possibly being affected by the condition.

Each puppy will carry at least one copy of the gene variant tested for. Dogs that are born minimal risk (1) could pass this gene variant on to any possible future puppies, while dogs that are born increased risk (2) will pass this gene variant on to any future puppies.

Increased risk (2) x increased risk (2)

Each puppy born has a:

  • 0% chance of having a minimal risk (0) status
  • 0% chance of having a minimal risk (1)
  • 100% chance of having an increased risk (2) status 

This means that each puppy born has a 100% chance of possibly being affected by the condition.

Each puppy will carry two copies of the DM risk gene variant and will pass one of these on to any future puppies.

Potentially producing affected puppies
A mating which may produce affected puppies could have a serious impact on their welfare. If this mating occurs, it is important to test all of the puppies before they are bred from or are passed on to new homes. Veterinary advice should be sought as to the clinical management of any affected puppies.
Why breed from carriers and affected dogs?

Breeding only from clear dogs can have a significant impact on genetic diversity within a breed, increasing inbreeding and therefore the likelihood of new inherited diseases emerging.

  • With simple autosomal-recessive disorders, a carrier will not be affected by the condition you have tested for, but they could pass on a copy of the faulty gene if they themselves are bred from
  • Only when a dog inherits two copies of a faulty gene (one from its mother and one from its father) will they be at increased risk
  • When used responsibly, carriers are an important part of any breeding plan and should not be overlooked
  • By breeding from carriers, you can keep good, healthy dogs in the breeding population, helping to maintain genetic diversity
  • Ultimately, however, over the course of a few generations it would be beneficial to aim to produce only clear puppies, thereby reducing the frequency of the disease causing variant of the gene in the breed

Similarly an affected dog could still be used in a breeding programme, but this will very much be dependent on the condition and whether the dog's welfare would be affected by the mating/whelping process. They should only be mated to clear dogs, to ensure no affected puppies are produced.

Are clear dogs 100% clear?
Clear dogs are only known to be clear for the condition that they have been tested for, and may carry other unknown mutations which can be passed on to their offspring - it is almost certain that all individuals carry some versions of genes that if inherited in duplicate, would result in disease. If a particular dog has many offspring that go on to breed themselves, these unknown mutations may then increase in frequency in the breed and a new inherited disease could emerge. In other words, no dog is completely risk free, but there are ways a breeder can reduce the risk of known and unknown inherited disease.
Additional cautions about using carriers or affected dogs

Sticking to these rules will mean that you can still use these dogs for breeding, while maintaining genetic diversity within the breed.

  • Never overuse a carrier or affected dog for mating. If a dog has one or two copies of a known faulty gene it should never be overused for breeding. Overusing these dogs risks increasing the frequency of the faulty gene within the population, making it more difficult for future generations to breed without increasing the risk of producing affected dogs
  • Do your research. If all breeders decided to use carriers or affected dogs for mating, then there is a possibility that as the frequency of mutant genes increases, then the proportion of 'clear' dogs would decline. You can use carriers and affected, but you always want to make sure you have a big enough supply of clear dogs. You may wish to talk to health representatives at your local breed club who will have access to summary information on the results of dogs that have been DNA tested and can advise you appropriately on the current situation in your breed
  • Any possible carrier puppies that go on to be bred from should be DNA tested prior to mating. If you do decide to produce puppies that are potential carriers, but are concerned that they may be used by their new owners for breeding, then you may wish to consider placing an endorsement on the puppy, or include a statement in your puppy contract that any puppies used for breeding must be tested prior to mating and if the puppy is a carrier, it must only be mated to a clear dog

Making balanced breeding decisions

As well as considering the implications of a dog’s DNA test results, there are other equally important factors to consider when deciding whether two dogs should be mated together, such as temperament, genetic diversity, conformation, other available health test results, the general health of the dogs etc. Your breeding decisions should always be well balanced and take into consideration the qualities and compatibility of both the sire and dam that you are considering.

Understand more about genes and inheritance

If you'd like to find out more about how genetic conditions are inherited, what DNA is, how a gene is made and how these translate into a dog’s body, why not read our guide on understanding dog genetics.

Questions and answers 

Which tests do The Kennel Club record?
DNA test  Mode of inheritance  Breeds
AI/FEH (Amelogenesis Imperfecta/Familial Enamel Hypoplasia) Autosomal recessive Japanese Akita Inu
AMPN (Alaskan Malamute polyneuropathy) Autosomal recessive  Alaskan Malamute
AMS (Acral mutilation syndrome) Autosomal recessive  Cocker Spaniel
English Springer Spaniel
AON (Adult onset neuropathy) Autosomal recessive Cocker Spaniel
BBS2-PRA (Progressive retinal atrophy)
Autosomal recessive Shetland Sheepdog
CA (Cerebellar ataxia) Autosomal recessive (linkage test) Italian Spinone
CC/DE (Curly coat/Dry eye) Autosomal recessive Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
CDSL (Chondrodysplasia) Autosomal recessive Norwegian Elkhound
CEA/CH (Collie eye anomaly/Choroidal hypoplasia) Autosomal recessive Australian Shepherd
Bearded Collie
Border Collie
Lancashire Heeler
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
Rough Collie
Shetland Sheepdog
Smooth Collie
CEA/CH (Collie eye anomaly/Choroidal hypoplasia) Autosomal recessive (linkage test) Australian Shepherd
Bearded Collie
Border Collie
Lancashire Heeler
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
Rough Collie
Shetland Sheepdog
Smooth Collie
CHG (Congenital hypothyroidism with goiter) Autosomal recessive Spanish Water Dog
CLAD (Canine leucocyte adhesion deficiency) Autosomal recessive Irish Red and White Setter
Irish Setter
CNGA1-PRA (Progressive retinal atrophy)
Autosomal recessive Shetland Sheepdog
CNM (Centronuclear myopathy) Autosomal recessive Labrador Retriever
COMMD1 (Copper toxicosis) Autosomal recessive Bedlington Terrier
Cone degeneration Autosomal recessive Alaskan Malamute
CSNB (Congenital stationary night blindness) Autosomal recessive Briard
CU (Cystinuria) Autosomal recessive Newfoundland
DCM (Dilated cardiomyopathy) Autosomal recessive Giant Schnauzer
Schnauzer
DE (Degenerative encephalopathy) Autosomal recessive Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
DM (Degenerative myelopathy) Autosomal recessive with incomplete penetrance (risk based DNA test) Chesapeake Bay Retriever
French Bulldog
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
Rough Collie
Smooth Collie
EF (Episodic falling) Autosomal recessive Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
EIC (Exercise-induced collapse) Autosomal recessive Labrador Retriever 
Smooth Collie
ENM (Hereditary necrotising myelopathy) Autosomal recessive Kooikerhondje
FN (Familial nephropathy) Autosomal recessive Cocker Spaniel
Fuco. (Fucosidosis) Autosomal recessive English Springer Spaniel
FVIID (Factor VII deficiency) Autosomal recessive Beagle
FVIIID (Haemophilia A/Factor VIII deficiency) Autosomal recessive German Shepherd Dog
Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia Autosomal recessive Otterhound
GM1 (Gangliosidosis) Autosomal recessive Portuguese Water Dog
GN (Greyhound neuropathy) Autosomal recessive Greyhound
Gonio (Severe goniodysgenesis and glaucoma risk) Autosomal recessive Border Collie
GR-PRA1 (Golden Retriever progressive retinal atrophy 1) Autosomal recessive Golden Retriever
GR-PRA2 (Golden Retriever progressive retinal atrophy 2) Autosomal recessive Golden Retriever
GSDII (Glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe's disease)) Autosomal recessive Finnish Lapphund
HC-HSF4 (Hereditary cataracts) Autosomal recessive/ Autosomal dominant Australian Shepherd
Boston Terrier
French Bulldog
Staffordshire Bull Terrier
HCA (Hereditary cerebellar ataxia) Autosomal recessive Norwegian Buhund
HFH (Hereditary footpad hyperkeratosis) Autosomal recessive Irish Terrier
HNPK (Hereditary nasal parakeratosis) Autosomal recessive Labrador Retriever
HUU (Hyperuricosuria) Autosomal recessive Bulldog
Dalmatian
Hungarian Wire Haire Vizsla
Large Munsterlander
Russian Black Terrier
ICT-A (Ichthyosis) Autosomal recessive Golden Retriever
IGS (Imerslun-Gräsbeck syndrome/Cobalamin malabsorption) Autosomal recessive Beagle 
Border Collie
IMGD (Inherited myopathy of Great Danes) Autosomal recessive Great Dane
JADD (Juvenile Addison’s disease) Autosomal recessive with incomplete penetrance (risk based DNA test) Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
JE (Juvenile epilepsy) Autosomal recessive Lagotto Romagnolo
JLPP (Juvenile laryngeal paralysis & Polyneuropathy) Autosomal recessive Rottweiler
Russian Black Terrier
JME (Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy) Autosomal recessive Rhodesian Ridgeback
L-2HGA (L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria) Autosomal recessive Staffordshire Bull Terrier
Lafora's disease Autosomal recessive Beagle 
Dachshund (Miniature Wire Haired)
LEMP (Leukoencephalomyelopathy) Autosomal recessive Leonberger
LOA (Late onset ataxia) Autosomal recessive Jack Russell Terrier
Parsons Russell Terrier
LPN1 (Leonberger polyneuropathy) Autosomal recessive Leonberger
LPN2 (Leonberger polyneuropathy) Autosomal dominant Leonberger
LSD (Lysosomal storage disease) Autosomal recessive Lagotto Romagnolo
MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex) Autosomal recessive Miniature Schnauzer
MDR1 (Multiple drug sensitivity) Autosomal recessive Australian Shepherd
Border Collie 
Rough Collie
Shetland Sheepdog
Smooth Collie
MLS (Musladin-Leuke syndrome) Autosomal recessive Beagle
MPSIIIB (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB) Autosomal recessive Schipperke
NAD (Neuroaxonal dystrophy) Autosomal recessive Papillon
Spanish Water Dog
NCCD (Neonatal cerebellar cortical degeneration) Autosomal recessive Beagle
NCL5 (Neruronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) Autosomal recessive Border Collie
NCL8 (Neruronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) Autosomal recessive English Setter
NCL12 (Neruronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) Autosomal recessive Tibetan Terrier
OC (Osteochondrodysplasia) Autosomal recessive Miniature Poodle
Pap-PRA1 (Progressive retinal atrophy - Papillons) Autosomal recessive Papillon
PCD (Primary ciliary syskinesia) Autosomal recessive Old English Sheepdog
PDE (Pug Dog Encephalitis) Autosomal recessive with incomplete penetrance (Risk Based DNA test) Pug
PDP-1 (Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate 1 deficiency) Autosomal recessive Smooth Collie
PFK (Phosphofructokinase deficiency) Autosomal recessive English Springer Spaniel
PHPT (Primary hyperparathyroidism) Autosomal dominant Keeshond
PLL (Primary lens luxation) Autosomal recessive Bull Terrier
Chinese Crested
Jack Russell Terrier
Lancashire Heeler
Parsons Russell Terrier
Sealyham Terrier
Tibetan Terrier
Welsh Terrier
POAG (Primary open angel glaucoma) Autosomal recessive Basset Hound
Norwegian Elkhound
Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen
POAG/PLL (Primary open angle glaucoma / Primary lens luxation) Autosomal recessive Shar Pei
PRA (cord1) (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Dachshund (Miniature Long Haired)
Dachshund (Miniature Smooth Haired)
Dachshund (Miniature Wire Haired)
English Springer Spaniel
PRA (crd3) (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Glen of Imall Terrier
PRA (rcd1) (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Irish Setter
PRA (rcd2) (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Rough Collie
Smooth Collie
PRA (rcd3) (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Welsh Cardigan Corgi
PRA (rcd4) (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive English Setter
Gordon Setter
Irish Setter
Standard Poodle
Tibetan Terrier
PRA3 (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Tibetan Spaniel
Tibetan Terrier
PRA4 (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Lhasa Apso
PRA5 (Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive Giant Schnauzer
prcd-PRA (Progressive rod cone degeneration - Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive American Cocker Spaniel
Australian Cattle Dog
Australian Shepherd
Barbet
Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Chinese Crested
Cocker Spaniel
Entlebucher Mountain Dog
Finnish Lapphund
Giant Schnauzer
Labrador Retriever
Norwegian Elkhound
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
Poodle (Miniature)
Poodle (Standard)
Poodle (Toy)
Portuguese Water Dog
Spanish Water Dog
Prcd-PRA (Progressive rod-cone degeneration, Progressive retinal atrophy) Autosomal recessive (linkage test) Australian Cattle Dog
Australian Shepherd
Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Chinese Crested
Cocker Spaniel
Entlebucher Mountain Dog
Finnish Lapphund
Giant Schnauzer
Labrador Retriever
Norwegian Elkhound
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
Poodle (Miniature)
Poodle (Standard)
Poodle (Toy)
Portuguese Water Dog
Spanish Water Dog
Retinopathy Autosomal recessive Swedish Vallhund
Sal-NCL (Saluki Neruronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) Autosomal recessive Saluki
SCA (Spinocerebellar ataxia) Autosomal recessive Jack Russell Terrier
Parsons Russell Terrier
SD2 (Skeletal dysplasia 2) Autosomal recessive Labrador Retriever
SLEM (Spongiform leuco-encephalo-myelopathy) Autosomal recessive Border Terrier
SN (Sensory neuropathy) Autosomal recessive Border Collie
TNS (Trapped neutrophil syndrome) Autosomal recessive Border Collie
vWD type I (von Willebrand disease) Autosomal recessive Dobermann
Manchester Terrier
Papillon
Poodle (Standard)
vWD type II (von Willebrand disease) Autosomal recessive German Wirehaired Pointer
vWD type III (von Willebrand disease) Autosomal recessive Kooikerhondje
Shetland Sheepdog
What is an official Kennel Club DNA testing scheme?

These testing schemes involve collaboration between The Kennel Club, the breed clubs and the DNA testing facility. Under any one of these schemes, the breeder/owner agrees for the result of their tested dog to be sent independently to The Kennel Club by the testing laboratory. The Kennel Club then notes the result on the dog's record in the registration database, and is published:

How can DNA tests become official schemes of The Kennel Club?

The Kennel Club is happy to consider a club's request to add a new DNA test to its lists and would normally need a formal request from the relevant breed health co-ordinator, or a majority request from the breed clubs. In most cases, the test would need to be run by a laboratory already recognised by The Kennel Club. All DNA tests must be able to record a definitive result for an individual dog, and must be based on robust science. The Kennel Club continues to work alongside breed clubs, breed health co-ordinators and canine health professionals in a collaborative effort to improve the health of pedigree dogs.

Are DNA test results published?

The names and results of The Kennel Club's registered dogs that are tested for conditions which are part of The Kennel Club’s official testing schemes will be recorded on The Kennel Club's database and will be made available:

Which laboratories does The Kennel Club record results from?
The Kennel Club, in partnership with Weatherbys, offers a range of DNA test for a number of different breed. Find out more information about our CombiBreed packages.

Alternatively, The Kennel Club also records results for some of the tests offered by the laboratories listed below.

Find out which laboratories offer DNA tests for your breed, please look at the health section of your breed's entry on our Breeds A to Z.

UK laboratories

Overseas laboratories

What statistics are known about inherited DNA test results?

Statistics on the number of dogs scored by the scheme and their results can be accessed in our DNA testing breed-specific information.