- Up to 1 hour per day
- Size of home
- Flat/ Apartment
- Once a week
- Coat length
- Over 10 years
- Vulnerable native breed
- Town or country
- Size of garden
- No garden
The Chinese passion for short faced, small breeds might well have been responsible for the development of the Pug. It is thought that traders from the Dutch East India Company took dogs of this type from China back to the Netherlands in the 16th Century where they became very popular in court circles. When William of Orange succeeded to the English throne, his Pugs came with him and gained the attention of the aristocracy. Soon the breed gained popularity in court circles. In the 21st century he has maintained his popularity as a companion breed as a result of his great personality. He is the most substantial of the Toy breeds earning the descriptor ‘multum in parvo’ – a lot of dog in a small frame!
Images for this breed
The Toy breed group
The Toy breeds are small companion or lap dogs. Many of the Toy breeds were bred for this capacity although some have been placed into this category simply due to their size. They should have friendly personalities and love attention. They do not need a large amount of exercise and some can be finicky eaters.
Breed standard colours
Breed standard colour means that the colour is accepted within the breed standard and is a traditional and well-known colour in this breed.
Breed standard colours in this breed include:
- Fawn With Black Mask
- Apricot With Black Mask
- Silver With Black Mask
Non-breed-standard colour means that the colour is not accepted within the breed standard and whilst some dogs within the breed may be this colour, it is advised to only select a dog that fits within the breed standards for all points.
Colour is only one consideration when picking a breed or individual dog. Health and temperament should always be a priority over colour.
Non-breed-standard colours in this breed include:
- Black & Tan (NBS)
- Black with White, Tan or Sable markings (NBS)
- Blue (NBS)
- Blue with White, Tan or Sable Markings (NBS)
- Brown with White, Tan or Black markings (NBS)
- Brown (NBS)
- Cream - no Black Mask (NBS)
- Sable (NBS)
- Silver - no Black Mask (NBS)
- White (NBS)
'Other' means you consider your puppy to be a colour not currently known within the breed and one that does not appear on either the breed standard or non-breed-standard list. In this instance you would be directed through our registration process to contact a breed club and/or council to support you on identifying and correctly listing the new colour.
Whether you’re thinking of buying a puppy, or breeding from your dog, it’s essential that you know what health issues may be found in your breed. To tackle these issues we advise that breeders use DNA tests, screening schemes and inbreeding coefficient calculators to help breed the healthiest dogs possible.
More about health
Priority health schemes and tests
The Kennel Club's Assured Breeders must use the following (or equivalent) schemes, tests and advice. All other breeders are strongly advised to also use these.
Important health schemes and tests
We strongly recommend that all breeders, both assured breeders (ABs) and non ABs, use the following (or equivalent) schemes, tests and advice.
- Hemivertebrae (HV) checking of parents by X-ray after 12 months of age
- Patella testing
- Participation in the Pug breed council health scheme or the national Pug health scheme
- Risk test (DNA based) - PDE (Find a list of tested dogs)
- Check inbreeding calculators
Find out about a particular dog's results
Please visit our Health Test Results Finder to discover the DNA or screening scheme test results for any dog on The Kennel Club's Breed Register.
You can also view the inbreeding coefficient calculation for a puppy's parents, or for a dog you're thinking of breeding from.
Health issues in flat-faced dogs
Dogs with a flat, wide shaped head, are said to be brachycephalic (brachy, meaning short and cephalic, meaning head). This particular skull shape will often give these dogs a characteristic flattened face and a short muzzle. Although the shape of these dogs’ heads can make them look very cute, dogs with a very flat face and short muzzle have a higher risk of developing certain health issues associated with their features, such as:
The soft tissue in the nose and throat of some brachycephalic dogs may be excessive for the airways, making it difficult for them to breathe normally (causing heavy panting or noisy breathing). Some dogs may also have narrow nostrils making it even more difficult to breathe.
More information can be found on:
- our film about breathing problems in flat-faced dogs
- from the University of Cambridge website
- in our article on breathing problems in flat-faced dogs
Some brachycephalic dogs may have an excess of skin, which creates folds, especially around the front of the face. These folds can make a warm, moist environment which is perfect for bacteria and yeast to grow, possibly leading to infection and severe itching.
More information can be found in our article on skin problems in flat-faced dogs.
Dogs with a shortened skull will often have a shortened jaw, but the number and size of teeth will stay the same. This can mean that the teeth become overcrowded and can cause dental and gum problems.
More information can be found on our advice page on how to take care of your dogs teeth.
Some brachycephalic dogs may have shallow eye sockets, causing their eyes to become more prominent and at a higher risk of trauma, ulcers and increasing the chance of them becoming dry and painful (due to not being able to blink properly).
More information can be found in our article on eye problems in flat-faced dogs.
Want to buy a puppy responsibly?
Not all flat-faced dogs will have the health issues described, but it is important that if you are thinking of buying a puppy, that you take extra precautions.
Have any questions about health in your breed?
If you have any concerns about a particular health condition in your breed then you may wish to speak to your vet or you could contact your breed health co-ordinator.
Breed health co-ordinators are individuals working on behalf of breed clubs and councils who are advocates for the health and welfare of their chosen breed. They acts as a spokesperson on matters of health and will collaborate with The Kennel Club on any health concerns the breed may have.
To contact your breed health co-ordinator please email
Particular points of concern for individual breeds may include features not specifically highlighted in the breed standard including current issues. In some breeds, features may be listed which, if exaggerated, might potentially affect the breed in the future.
There are a number of The Kennel Club's rules and regulations that may prevent a litter from being registered, find out about our general and breed specific breeding restrictions below.
More about breeding
The Kennel Club will not register merle Pugs, including those imported from overseas. This is because the merle gene in this breed carries an increased risk of impaired hearing and sight problems.
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