Screening Scheme Description

Risk test (DNA based) - PDE
Description: Pug Dog Encephalitis

Details about the disease

PDE is an inflammatory brain disease that is usually progressive and fatal.

Clinical signs

Signs of PDE can include seizures, not walking correctly and blindness.

How it is inherited

The disease is described as an autosomal recessive condition. This means that dogs that inherit two copies of an PDE gene mutation (one from its mother and one from its father) will have an increased risk of developing the condition.

About this test

Unlike most other DNA tests, the test for PDE evaluates a dog’s risk of developing the disease, rather than giving a definitive result.

How results are recorded

Tested dogs will be recorded on the Kennel Club systems as at “minimal risk (0)”, “minimal risk (1)” or “increased risk (2)”. The numbers assigned to each status indicate the number of copies of the PDE gene variant a dog has.

Minimal risk (0)

These dogs do not have any copies of the PDE gene variant and are at minimal risk of developing the condition.

Minimal risk (1)

These dogs have one copy of the PDE gene variant, but are at minimal risk of developing the condition and may pass either one copy of the normal gene, or one copy of the abnormal gene on to future puppies.

Increased risk (2)

These dogs have two copies of the PDE gene variant and have an increased risk of developing PDE. However, of these of these dogs, it is estimated that only one in eight will ever become affected by the condition itself.

Which laboratories test for this condition?

A list of laboratories and DNA tests can be found at the following link

How to find out if a potential mate has been DNA tested

The Kennel Club’s “Health Test Results Finder” allows you to find the results of DNA tests carried out as part of official Kennel Club DNA testing schemes for any dog on the Kennel Club’s breed register. To access this free health tool, please follow this link


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