Of the two types of Corgi, the Cardigan is thought to be the older. The word Corgi is thought to be rooted in the Celtic 'cor' meaning dwarf and 'gi' – dog. They are both short legged which equips them well for the job of driving livestock forward.
The Cardigan has always been undocked, and was once known affectionately as the Yard Dog (Ci Llatharid), because the measurement from his nose to the end of his tail was a Welsh yard (102 cm/40 in). He is the longer bodied of the two breeds and his front legs are slightly bowed.
The two breeds have traditionally been used as heelers, driving cattle by day and guarding them at night. At one time the Cardigan and the Pembroke were allowed to interbreed freely but in 1934 the Kennel Club recognised them as two separate breeds.
Pastoral Breed Group
The Pastoral Group consists of herding dogs that are associated with working cattle, sheep, reindeer and other cloven footed animals.
Usually this type of dog has a weatherproof double coat to protect it from the elements when working in severe conditions. Breeds such as the Collie family, Old English Sheepdogs and Samoyeds who have been herding reindeer for centuries are but a few included in this group.