Glossary

Health Tests

Hip Scores

A hip score is a measure of evidence of hip dysplasia (abnormal development). Scores for each hip are added together to get an overall hip score for a dog. Scores range from 0 to 106, with the lower the score the better. The advice to breeders is to ideally breed only from dogs which score below the breed average.

More information on the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia scheme

Elbow Grade

An elbow grade is a measure of any evidence of elbow dysplasia (abnormal development). Both elbows are graded (between 0-3), but only the highest grade is used as an overall elbow grade for the dog. The lower the grade the better, with the advice given to breeders to ideally breed from dogs which have an elbow grade of 0 or 1.

More information on the BVA/KC Elbow Dysplasia scheme

Eye Screening

There is a set list of breeds and eye conditions, known to be inherited in those breeds and that are certified under the Eye Scheme. A dog is certified as unaffected or affected for each condition known to be inherited in the breed.

Key to eye conditions

Code Description
CEA Collie eye anomaly
CHC Congenital hereditary cataract
G Glaucoma
HC Hereditary cataract
PHPV Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
PLL Primary lens luxation
PPM Persistent pupillary membrane
CPRA Centralised progressive retinal atrophy
GPRA Generalised progressive retinal atrophy
MRD Multifocal retinal dysplasia
TRD Total retinal dysplasia

In general, it is recommended that eyes are examined annually (except for glaucoma predisposition which is only done once), with the advice given to breeders to only breed from dogs that are found to be unaffected (or clear) of all known conditions in the breed.

More information on the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye scheme

DNA Test

There are DNA tests available for specific conditions in some breeds. A result or status will show only if the dog has been DNA tested or is hereditarily clear of the condition for which there is a DNA test.

DNA tests can show whether an individual dog is genetically clear (no copies of the disease gene), a carrier (one copy of the disease gene) or affected (two copies of the disease gene) for a particular condition or disease. This is very useful information for breeders, and breeding advice will vary according to the disease/condition in question.

Key to DNA tests

Code Description
GPRA-rcd1 Generalised progressive retinal atrophy - rcd1
GPRA-rcd3 Generalised progressive retinal atrophy - rcd3
CLAD Canine leucocyte adhesion deficiency
vWD Von Willebrand Disease
CSNB Congenital stationary night blindness
FN Familial nephropathy
GPRA cord-1 Generalised progressive retinal atrophy - cord-1
L-2HGA L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
HC-1 Hereditary cataract - 1
JHC Juvenile hereditary cataract
prcd-PRA Progressive rod cone degeneration - Progressive retinal atrophy
PDP-1 Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate 1 deficiency
CL Ceroid lipofuscinosis
TNS Trapped neutrophil syndrome
Fuco. Fucosidosis
CEA/CH Collie eye anomaly / Choroidal hypoplasia

More information on DNA screening schemes and a list of DNA tests


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